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TLR4 ELISA Kit (Toll-Like Receptor 4)

Full Name: TLR4 ELISA Kit (Toll-Like Receptor 4)
Reactivity: Human
Sample Type: Plasma, Tissue Homogenates, Serum, Biological Fluids
Sensitivity: 0.188 ng/ml

INTRODUCTION

TLR4, also known as toll receptor 4 is a protein involved in our body’s innate immune system. It plays a role, in detecting microbes and internal warning signals which then triggers both inflammatory and anti-viral responses. When TLR4 signaling is disrupted it can contribute to diseases.

In terms of its structure TLR4 is expressed on cells like macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells act as sentinels that identify lipopolysaccharide (LPS) a molecule commonly found on Gram bacteria. When toll receptor 4 binds with LPS it undergoes a process called dimerization and initiates a series of signaling events downstream. This ultimately leads to the production of cytokines and type I interferons helping our body pathogens effectively. Moreover besides LPS detection TLR4 can also sense host biomolecules released by damaged tissues.

Activation of toll receptor 4 does not promote the maturation of cells but also increases the expression of co stimulatory molecules necessary for adaptive immune responses. However excessive stimulation of TLR4 can result in inflammation that harms our body rather than protecting it. For instance in cases like sepsis where there are levels of circulating LPS, hyperactivation of TLR4 can lead to cytokine storms that may be life threatening. Additionally TLR4 mediated inflammation has been linked to conditions such, as arthritis, atherosclerosis and neuropathic pain.

INTENDED USE

Human TLR4 ELISA kit can measure concentrations of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4, CD284, ARMD10, CD284 antigen, hTollhomolog of drosophilia toll, TOLL) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue homogenate samples.

CONTENT

All reagents supplied need to be stored at 2 °C – 8 °C, unopened reagents will retain reactivity until expiration date. Do not use reagents beyond this date.

  • One 96-Well Plate: Pre-coated with anti-TLR4 antibody.
  • Standards: Lyophilized recombinant.
  • Sample/Standard Dilution Buffer.
  • Biotinylated-labelled Antibody.
  • Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  • HRP-Streptavidin Conjugate (SABC).
  • SABC Dilution Buffer.
  • TMB Substrate.
  • Wash Buffer (25x).
  • Plate Sealer.
  • Product Instructions.

TYPICAL RESULTS

For this TLR4 ELISA kit, it is recommended that a standard curve is generated for each assay carried out.

Standard Curve: 0, 0.312, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 ng/ml.
Reactivity: Human
Sensitivity: 0.188 ng/ml
Range: 0.313 – 20 ng/ml
Principle: Sandwich, Double Antibody
Application: Research Use Only.

ASSAY CHARACTERISTICS

– Specificity: Highly specific for TLR4, no cross reactivity or interference between TLR4 and analogues was detected.
– Recovery: Serum (96 – 102%), EDTA Plasma (86 – 103%), Heparin Plasma (86 – 101%).
– Linearity: Serum (85 – 99%), EDTA Plasma (82 – 96%), Heparin Plasma (86 – 94%).
– Precison Intra-Assay: CV < 8%
– Precison Inter-Assay: CV < 10%

REFERENCES

  1. Role of toll-like receptor 4 in diabetic retinopathy. Pharmacol Res. (2022) 175: 105960. Bayan N., et al.
  2. Saturated fatty acids trigger TLR4-mediated inflammatory response. Atherosclerosis. (2016) 244: 211-5. Rocha D.M., et al.
  3. LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Cytokine. (2008) 42 (2): 145-151. Lu Y.C., et al.
  4. Insight Into TLR4-Mediated Immunomodulation in Normal Pregnancy and Related Disorders. Front Immunol. (2020) 11: 807. Firmal P., et al.

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