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Furin ELISA Kit (FUR)

Full Name: Furin ELISA Kit (FUR)
Reactivity: Human
Sample Type: Plasma, Tissue Homogenates, Serum, Biological Fluids
Sensitivity: 9.375 pg/ml

INTRODUCTION

Furin is a cellular endoprotease belonging to the proprotein convertase family that is involved in processing and activating precursor proteins and peptides. Localized in the Golgi apparatus and cell surface, it cleaves target proteins at consensus cleavage sites with paired basic amino acids to induce conformational changes unveiling functional domains. Thereby furin crucially regulates maturation and biological activities of a diverse repertoire of proproteins and pathogenic toxins that together impact homeostasis spanning developmental, neurotrophic, and infectious disease contexts.

Through proteolytic processing, furin activates protein precursors that drive critical physiological processes in embryogenesis, tissue remodeling, and neuroregeneration. These substrate proteins include growth factors, receptors, adhesion molecules, and matrix metalloproteinases regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration plus extracellular matrix assembly and degradation. Conversely in pathogens, it enables toxicity of newly evolved strains by cleaving surface glycoproteins to potentiate infectious entry, spread and immune evasion. For example, furin cleavage activation of hemagglutinin glycoproteins occurs in highly pathogenic influenza viruses and fibrinoyltic toxins in bacterial superantigens.

Furin cleaves amyloid precursor proteins generating aggregation-prone peptides that accumulate as amyloid fibrils compromising neuronal function. Hence furin inhibition shows increasing promise for ameliorating neurotoxicity in such protein misfolding disorders. Furthermore, since furin processes surface proteins exploited by diverse pathogens and tumors, inhibitors may have adjuvant therapeutic utility against malignancy, bacteria, and viruses including HIV and coronaviruses by suppressing pathogenic activation.

INTENDED USE

Human furin ELISA kit can measure concentrations of FUR (furin) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue homogenate samples.

CONTENT

All reagents supplied need to be stored at 2 °C – 8 °C, unopened reagents will retain reactivity until expiration date. Do not use reagents beyond this date.

  • One 96-Well Plate: Pre-coated with anti-furin antibody.
  • Standards: Lyophilized recombinant.
  • Sample/Standard Dilution Buffer.
  • Biotinylated-labelled Antibody.
  • Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  • HRP-Streptavidin Conjugate (SABC).
  • SABC Dilution Buffer.
  • TMB Substrate.
  • Wash Buffer (25x).
  • Plate Sealer.
  • Product Instructions.

TYPICAL RESULTS

For this furin ELISA kit, it is recommended that a standard curve is generated for each assay carried out.

Standard Curve: 0, 15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 pg/ml.
Reactivity: Human
Sensitivity: 3.75 pg/ml
Range: 15.625 – 1000 pg/ml
Principle: Sandwich, Double Antibody
Application: Research Use Only.

ASSAY CHARACTERISTICS

– Specificity: Highly specific for FUR, no cross reactivity or interference between FUR and analogues was detected.
– Recovery: Serum (86 – 103%), EDTA Plasma (92 – 96%), Heparin Plasma (90 – 103%).
– Linearity: Serum (88 – 101%), EDTA Plasma (82 – 98%), Heparin Plasma (80 – 99%).
– Precison Intra-Assay: CV < 8%
– Precison Inter-Assay: CV < 10%

REFERENCES

  1. Furin-mediated proprotein processing activity: involvement of negatively charged amino acid residues in the substrate binding region. Biochimie. (1994) 76 (3-4): 210-6. Roebroek A.J., et al.
  2. Furin deficiency in myeloid cells leads to attenuated revascularization in a mouse-model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Exp Eye Res. (2018) 166: 160-167. Vähätupa M., et al.
  3. Myeloid cell expressed proprotein convertase FURIN attenuates inflammation. Oncotarget. (2016) 7 (34): 54392-54404. Cordova Z.M., et al.
  4. Furin is the major processing enzyme of the cardiac-specific growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 10. J Biol Chem. (2011) 286 (26): 22785-94. Susan-Resiga D., et al.

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