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Fractalkine ELISA Kit

Full Name: Fractalkine ELISA Kit (Chemokine C-X3-C-Motif Ligand 1)
Reactivity: Human
Sample Type: Plasma, Tissue Homogenates, Serum, Biological Fluids
Sensitivity: 75 pg/ml

INTRODUCTION

Fractalkine, officially termed CX3CL1 (C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1), represents a unique chemokine known to mediate adhesion and migration in both soluble and membrane-anchored forms. Its identification emerged in 1997 when a cDNA library screen uncovered a novel protein containing a CX3C chemokine domain, an extended mucin-like stalk, and transmembrane helix – yielding exceptional capability to exist either bound or shed from membranes. Accordingly, fractalkine exhibits characteristics of both chemokines and cell adhesion molecules to support unique functions in immune and nervous system homeostasis.

In its membrane-tethered state, fractalkine can capture circulating leukocytes expressing the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 via adhesive interactions. This allows directional migration along fractalkine’s chemokine gradient as well as firm adhesion resisting blood flow shear stress. Monocytes and T cells prominently express CX3CR1, facilitating their recruitment by endothelial or epithelial cells presenting surface fractalkine. Furthermore, surface fractalkine supports adhesion and migration of CX3CR1-bearing microglia and interneurons in the central nervous system. The soluble fragment shed after proteolysis also possesses chemokine activity to stimulate immune cell chemotaxis. Therefore, both immobilized and diffusible fractalkine glycol-forms coordinate diverse cellular migration patterns.

Increased soluble fractalkine in blood correlates with severity in graft-versus-host disease, rheumatoid arthritis and sepsis. In the brain, abnormal fractalkine signaling links to neuropathic pain, anxiety, and neurodegeneration. Intriguingly, a coding variant in CX3CR1 also correlates with accelerated cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Ongoing efforts to develop fractalkine-based therapies or CX3CR1-targeted drugs may provide routes to restore immune balance or neuronal health for these conditions.

INTENDED USE

Human fractalkine ELISA kit can measure concentrations of Chemokine C-X3-C-Motif Ligand 1 (fractalkine) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue homogenate samples.

CONTENT

All reagents supplied need to be stored at 2 °C – 8 °C, unopened reagents will retain reactivity until expiration date. Do not use reagents beyond this date.

  • One 96-Well Plate: Pre-coated with anti-fractalkine.
  • Standards: Lyophilized recombinant.
  • Sample/Standard Dilution Buffer.
  • Biotinylated-labelled Antibody.
  • Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  • HRP-Streptavidin Conjugate (SABC).
  • SABC Dilution Buffer.
  • TMB Substrate.
  • Wash Buffer (25x).
  • Plate Sealer.
  • Product Instructions.

TYPICAL RESULTS

For this fractalkine ELISA kit, it is recommended that a standard curve is generated for each assay carried out.

Standard Curve: 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 pg/ml
Reactivity: Human
Sensitivity: 75 pg/ml
Range: 125 – 8000 pg/ml
Principle: Sandwich, Double Antibody
Application: Research Use Only.

ASSAY CHARACTERISTICS

– Specificity: Highly specific for fractalkine, no cross reactivity or interference between fractalkine and analogues was detected.
– Recovery: Serum (87 – 105%), EDTA Plasma (89 – 104%), Heparin Plasma (89 – 100%).
– Linearity: Serum (87 – 104%), EDTA Plasma (83 – 90%), Heparin Plasma (89 – 96%).
– Precison Intra-Assay: CV < 8%
– Precison Inter-Assay: CV < 10%

REFERENCES

  1. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 in Neoplastic Processes. Int J Mol Sci. (2020) 21 (10): 3723. Korbecki J., et al.
  2. Fractalkine-induced microglial vasoregulation occurs within the retina and is altered early in diabetic retinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2021) 118 (51): e2112561118. Mills S.A., et al.
  3. Fractalkine/CX3CR1: why a single chemokine-receptor duo bears a major and unique therapeutic potential. Expert Opin Ther Targets. (2010) 14 (2): 207-19. D’Haese J.G., et al.
  4. Fractalkine/CX3CL1: a potential new target for inflammatory diseases. Mol Interv. (2010) 10 (5): 263-70. Jones B.A., et al.

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