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Lipoteichoic Acid ELISA Kit (LTA)

Full Name: Lipoteichoic Acid ELISA Kit (LTA)
Reactivity: Human
Sample Type: Biological Fluids, Tissue Homogenates, Plasma, Serum
Sensitivity: 4.688 pg/ml

INTRODUCTION

A component of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria is lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The structure varies between different species of Gram-positive bacteria and may contain long chains of ribitol or glycerol phosphate. It is anchored to the cell membrane via a diacylglycerol. It acts as a regulator of autolytic wall enzymes (muramidases) and a structural component of the cell wall. It is a precursor to glycerolipid. It resembles cholesterol in this respect. In the cell membrane, it is anchored to glycerol-3-phosphate. Given that it is a part of the cytoskeleton, it is crucial for cell division. Additionally, it offers some defence against digestive tract proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin, which can cause bacterial cell death through cytoskeleton autolysis.

Lipoteichoic acid performs several functions such as; regulating cell wall enzymes, binding to target cells and activating the immune system, modifying the cell surface charge and properties, and inducing sleep, fever and appetite suppression. It can also act as a virulence factor by adhering to host tissues or as a suppressor of T cell growth factor. The exact role and mechanism in different bacterial strains and host responses are still under investigation. LTA is not only produced by enterobacteria, but also by most gram-positive bacteria such as “Staphylococcus aureus”. In “S. aureus”, it has been found to bind to and inhibit the hapten binding protein (HBP). HBP is an important cell surface receptor that binds to bacterial products and initiates immune responses. It has been shown that the presence of LTA on the extracellular part of HBP leads to its inactivation, thereby blocking activation of T cells.

INTENDED USE

Human lipoteichoic acid ELISA kit can measure concentrations of LTA (lipoteichoic acid) present is human tissue homogenates, plasma, serum and other biological fluids.

CONTENT

All reagents supplied need to be stored at 2 °C – 8 °C, unopened reagents will retain reactivity until expiration date. Do not use reagents beyond this date.

  • One 96-Well Plate: Pre-coated with anti-LTA antibody.
  • Standards: Lyophilized recombinant.
  • Sample/Standard Dilution Buffer.
  • Biotinylated-labelled Antibody.
  • Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  • HRP-Streptavidin Conjugate (SABC).
  • SABC Dilution Buffer.
  • TMB Substrate.
  • Wash Buffer (25x).
  • Plate Sealer.
  • Product Instructions.

TYPICAL RESULTS

For this lipoteichoic acid ELISA kit it is recommended that a standard curve is generated for each assay carried out.

Standard Curve: 0, 7.813, 15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 pg/ml.
Reactivity: Human
Sensitivity: 4.688 pg/ml
Range: 7.813 – 500 pg/ml
Principle: Sandwich
Application: Research Use Only.

ASSAY CHARACTERISTICS

– Specificity: Highly specific for LTA, no cross reactivity or interference between LTA and analogues was detected.
– Recovery: Serum (87 – 105%), EDTA Plasma (90 – 104%), Heparin Plasma (85 – 101%).
– Linearity: Serum (89 – 104%), EDTA Plasma (85 – 103%), Heparin Plasma (87 – 100%).
– Precison Intra-Assay: CV < 8%.
– Precison Inter-Assay: CV < 10%.
– Stability: Less than 10%.

REFERENCES

  1. Lipoteichoic-acid synthesis and function in gram-positive bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. (2014) 68: 81-100. Percy M.G. and Gründling A.
  2. Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is not as potent as staphylococcal LTA in stimulating Toll-like receptor 2. Infect Immun. (2003) 71 (10): 5541-8. Han S.H., et al.
  3. Virulence of Filifactor alocis lipoteichoic_acid on human gingival fibroblast. Arch Oral Biol. (2022) 135: 105370. Yoo H.J. and Lee S.H.

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