Butyrophilin-Like Protein 2 ELISA Kit (BTNL2)

Full Name: Butyrophilin-Like Protein 2 ELISA Kit (BTNL2)
Reactivity: Human
Sample Type: Plasma, Tissue Homogenates, Serum, Biological Fluids
Sensitivity: 0.188 ng/ml


Butyrophilin-like protein 2 (BTNL2) belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed in various immune cell types. Initially discovered as a risk gene for sarcoidosis, BTNL2’s associations with multiple inflammatory disorders highlight immunomodulatory roles that balance T cell activation against regulation to prevent aberrant responses. As key functions continue emerging at the intersection of adaptive immunity, host-microbiome dialogue, and intestinal homeostasis, BTNL2 presents opportunities to selectively dampen inflammation while sparing protective immunity.

Structurally resembling MHC-associated butyrophilins implicated in T cell inhibition, BTNL2 likewise negatively regulates T cell activation. Studies reveal BTNL2 deficiency in mice fosters excessive Th1 and Th17 responses and more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Through its intracellular B30.2 domain interactions, BTNL2 may interfere with stimulation signals downstream of the T cell receptor to raise activation threshold. Additionally, by binding the co-stimulatory receptor CD28, BTNL2 disrupts CD28-mediated costimulation required for optimal T cell proliferation following antigen recognition. Thereby, BTNL2 checks inappropriate T cell reactions.

Intriguingly however, BTNL2 interactions with CD28 reciprocally limit its own inhibitory activity through poorly understood mechanisms. This dynamic feedback loop may enable tuning of BTNL2 activity and adaptive responses based on context. Of note, BTNL2 expression in gut epithelial cells responds to IL-22 and may mediate host-microbiome cross talk guiding immune development. Uncovering such pathways governing its regulation in disease states offers opportunities for therapeutic modulation.


Human butyrophilin-like protein 2 ELISA kit can measure concentrations of BTNL2 (butyrophilin-like protein 2, BTL II, HSBLMHC1, SS2) present is plasma, serum, biological fluids or tissue homogenate samples.


All reagents supplied need to be stored at 2 °C – 8 °C, unopened reagents will retain reactivity until expiration date. Do not use reagents beyond this date.

  • One 96-Well Plate: Pre-coated with anti-BTNL2 antibody.
  • Standards: Lyophilized recombinant.
  • Sample/Standard Dilution Buffer.
  • Biotinylated-labelled Antibody.
  • Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  • HRP-Streptavidin Conjugate (SABC).
  • SABC Dilution Buffer.
  • TMB Substrate.
  • Wash Buffer (25x).
  • Plate Sealer.
  • Product Instructions.


For this butyrophilin-like protein 2 ELISA kit, it is recommended that a standard curve is generated for each assay carried out.

Standard Curve: 0, 0.313, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 ng/ml.
Reactivity: Human
Sensitivity: 0.188 ng/ml
Range: 0.313 – 20 ng/ml
Principle: Sandwich, Double Antibody
Application: Research Use Only.


– Specificity: Highly specific for BTNL2, no cross reactivity or interference between BTNL2 and analogues was detected.
– Recovery: Serum (89 – 102%), EDTA Plasma (88 – 104%), Heparin Plasma (86 – 105%).
– Linearity: Serum (83 – 101%), EDTA Plasma (85 – 99%), Heparin Plasma (82 – 101%).
– Precison Intra-Assay: CV < 8%
– Precison Inter-Assay: CV < 10%


  1. Butyrophilin-like 2 regulates site-specific adaptations of intestinal γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes. Commun Biol. (2021) 4 (1): 913. Panea C., et al.
  2. BTNL2, a butyrophilin-like molecule that functions to inhibit T cell activation. J Immunol. (2006) 176 (12): 7354-60. Nguyen T., et al.
  3. BTNL2 gene polymorphism and sarcoid uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. (2019) 103 (12): 1690-1694. Chaperon M., et al.
  4. Genome-wide association study identifies BTNL2-associated with atopic asthma in children. Medicine (Baltimore). (2021) 100 (44): e27626. Kim S.Y., et al.


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